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What is LLMNR & WPAD and How to Abuse Them During Pentest ?

In internal penetration tests, we simulate attacks that can be performed against on misconfigured services and protocols on network-level.These attacks are mostly caused by the fact that mechanisms such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and Domain Name System (DNS) are not configured properly.One of the most important attacks that can be encountered is undoubtedly Man-in-the-Middle. It allows access to sensitive information by listening to network traffic or manipulating the target to be accessed. Security measures against this attack can be taken on network equipment such as routers and switches. However, due to the inherent weaknesses of some protocols, we can perform the same attack with different methods. For this reason, the main theme of this article will be Man-in-the-Middle attacks against LLMNR, NetBIOS and WPAD mechanisms. Before begin, I would like to explain how the computers have Windows operating system communicate with each other in the same network and perform name resolution. Read More

How to Perform DDoS Test as a Pentester

A denial of service (DoS) attack is an attempt to make a service unavailable. Unlike other kinds of attacks, which establishes foothold or hijacks data, DoS attacks do not threat sensitive information. It is just an attempt to make a service unavailable to legitimate users. However, sometimes DoS might also be used for creating another attack floor for other malicious activities. (e.g. taking down web application firewalls) Read More

Data Exfiltration (Tunneling) Attacks against Corporate Network

Data exfiltration, also called data extrusion, is the unauthorized transfer of data from a computer. These type of attacks against corporate network may be manual and carried out by someone with USB or it may be automated and carried out over a network. In this article, we will focus on a network based data exfiltration techniques that must be covered during penetration test. Read More