This paper will explain several methods used for placing backdoors in PE(Portable Executable) files for red team purposes, in order to fully grasp the content of this paper, readers needs to have at least intermediate x86 assembly knowledge, familiarity with debuggers and decent understanding of PE file format. (more…)
Hello everyone, in this post we are going to use DNS for data ex-filtration to fasten (time based) blind sql injection attacks or make exploitation possible even on random delayed networks/applications. So let us start with basics of DNS.
An n-layered security architecture is created to protect important services required by the concept of Defense-in-Depth, which has an important place in the world of information technology. If we think about this for the corporate networks; critical systems can not be in the same network with other systems. In this article, we will analyze with examples how the attackers can access the hidden networks that have no accessibility in the first stage, by using pivoting methods. (more…)
In internal penetration tests, we simulate attacks that can be performed against on misconfigured services and protocols on network-level.These attacks are mostly caused by the fact that mechanisms such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), and Domain Name System (DNS) are not configured properly.One of the most important attacks that can be encountered is undoubtedly Man-in-the-Middle. It allows access to sensitive information by listening to network traffic or manipulating the target to be accessed. Security measures against this attack can be taken on network equipment such as routers and switches. However, due to the inherent weaknesses of some protocols, we can perform the same attack with different methods. For this reason, the main theme of this article will be Man-in-the-Middle attacks against LLMNR, NetBIOS and WPAD mechanisms. Before begin, I would like to explain how the computers have Windows operating system communicate with each other in the same network and perform name resolution. (more…)
As you know, nowadays web applications could be as complex as operating systems. Most of those complexity comes from authorisation schemas. Such weaknesses are referred to in the literature as Insecure Direct Object Reference.
Insecure Direct Object References occur when an application provides direct access to objects based on user-supplied input. As a result of this vulnerability attackers can bypass authorization and access resources in the system directly, for example database records or files. (more…)